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In Honor of Mother’s Day

22I recently watched a segment of the HBO show Vice about the Fat Farms of Mauritania. In it, a reporter traveled to the West African country to profile the ancient practice of brutally force-feeding young girls to fatten them up to make them more attractive for marriage.
In their culture, a fat woman is seen as a symbol of a man’s wealth. So the fatter the girl, the higher her perceived value. Girls are used to elevate the social status of fathers and husbands, to forge alliances between families. It’s about buying into the girl’s family. The girl herself is just bait.
I spend half the year in East Africa with Drop, constructing water wells at schools to help girls get an education. Without those wells, education is not even an option for many girls in this region. Instead, they are forced to serve the family by spending a major part of every day fetching water. Another way they are meant to serve the family is through their bride prices or dowries.
A dowry is when the groom’s family makes a payment to the bride’s family, usually in the form of cows or money. Protecting this exchange is of great importance to a girl’s family, so her childhood is very often cut short by an arranged child marriage. Many girls are married off as soon as they reach puberty. This avoids the risk that she could lose her virginity before marriage, or worse, that she might get pregnant. These families have been counting on these dowries since the girls were babies. They often need it to feed the family and provide for the brother’s dowries.
In Mauritania, the girls don’t want to eat all of that food. If a girl refuses to eat because her stomach hurts, the family beats her or cracks her feet with a stick, sometimes breaking her toes. If she can not hold down the food and vomits, she is often made to eat the vomit.
These girls are being dragged into a pattern of bad health that they will carry for the rest of their lives. In other parts of Africa, a girl is fed less than her brothers. It’s the same oppression, just opposite extremes.
Whether it is fattening a girl to marry her off or marrying a 13-year-old who then dies trying to deliver a baby that is too big for her small frame, the girl’s health is of little concern. Imagine being a young scared teen delivering a baby in the deep village with no medical assistance. According to the UN, in South Sudan, a 15-year-old girl has a higher risk of dying in childbirth than of finishing secondary school.
Regardless of how it’s packaged, it’s a systematic, long-standing acceptance of objectifying, oppressing and abusing young girls.
15From birth, a girl is viewed as a product to be owned by men. Since she will eventually be married into another family, there is generally little concern for educating a girl. It is expensive, and everybody knows she will be traded off at 15 years old in a family arrangement, in which she has no say. And her husband can do with her as he pleases, since he paid for her. Until that time, she is merely a female form to be manipulated and molded in order to meet a standard that will hopefully lead to a higher bride price. After that, her primary duties will be bearing as many children as possible and serving her husband.
In a study conducted by Mifumi, a non-government organization in Toroto, Uganda, 60 percent of the women surveyed believed that bride prices contributed to domestic violence. Women are treated as possessions, which leads to inequality. But the system is slowly changing. In many countries, including Uganda and South Sudan, the government has outlawed underage marriage. But long-held traditions are hard to break, and these laws are rarely enforced in the deep villages.
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I enjoy watching Vice, and I think it is a brave show. I just wish they had delved a little deeper into this topic. It’s not about men preferring heavy women – it’s a human rights issue that, fortunately, more and more people are starting to become aware of.
We can’t keep looking at situations like Fat Farms and think they are cultural quirks. There is a global humanitarian crisis of oppressing women and girls. Whether it’s girls being sold into sex slavery, publically flogged for being raped or fattened up to be traded like cattle, these are our wives, our sisters and our mothers. It’s our duty to help them.
It’s not our job to change other cultures. That change must come from within. But I meet girls everyday who desperately desire change. They just need their voices to be heard. And the key is education. An educated girl demands more for herself, and an educated mother demands more for her children. The work we are trying to do with Drop in the Bucket is not just about supplying children with clean water, though that is certainly the first very important step. It is about getting children educated so that they can stand up for themselves and end the cycle of this oppression.

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Sister Sidonia Aman Tong

Camboni Primary and Secondary School in Aweil Town was the location of one of the wells we recently repaired. The school was constructed by the Catholic Church, in the 1970s, but they are no longer funding it and the government has taken over.   While we were there observing the work, I met the principal, Antonia Adhel.   I was impressed that a woman was holding in such a prominent position, which is rare around here.    She was also beautifully dressed in the most vibrant African fabrics and was extremely outgoing.  I am always interested in talking about strategies for keeping the girls in school and knew for sure that Antonia would have something to share.
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She told me that this school had graduated some of the most prominent women in the country, including the State Speaker for the House of Representatives and the Minister of Parliamentary Affairs.  But she said I should really meet her aunt Sister Sidonia Aman Tong, who founded the school and was now in her 90s.  Little did I know that Sister Sidonia is a legend in Northern Bahr el Ghazal.
We scheduled a meeting for 10AM on Saturday.  When I arrived Sister Sidonia was bright and ready to talk.  She looked like she was in her 60s and had a mind to match.   Her English was better than most and she had a sweetness that is rare in a war-torn area.
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She began telling me her story.  She was the first black Sudanese nun and it had been no easy task.  The story was long and beautiful but basically in the late 30s Italian Missionaries came to Aweil and set up a school and she was determined to go.  She wanted to get an education but not only that, she wanted to be a nun.  The Sisters had such personal pride and she was extremely drawn to that.  But it was unheard of around here to do something like that – everybody gets married and has children!!  And she was very beautiful, with only one sister.  So her family was relying on her beauty to bring a large dowry of one hundred cows, which her brothers and cousins would also to use to marry.
Sidonia went to the school every chance she got and eventually the nuns taught her to cook and began paying her a small amount to prepare their meals.   Finally her brothers came and demanded that if she stay in school that the Bishop must pay her dowry.   Sidonia agreed to pay her own dowry with her money from cooking and continued going with school.
She completed school and officially became a nun in 1942.  Being the first black nun in Sudan, she met with much resistance.  This was not considered appropriate in the culture.   Ultimately she settled in Aweil and started running the Camboni.
Her mind had been opened up to so much and she knew that the village girls would also benefit from school.   She convinced the Catholic Church to buy her a truck and began going village-to-village bringing the girls back to her school, telling the parents that an educated girl world get 1000-cow dowry!!   (I LOVE THS WOMAN!)

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During the war, the soldiers from the North occupied Aweil.  Although Sister Sidonia kept the school open, they were constantly harassed and threatened by Sudan soldiers.  One time she was taken from the school at gunpoint and taken to the barracks. The soldiers threatened her life and insisted she stopped teaching the children English and that she only taught them Arabic.  She refused and told them they would have to kill her before she stopped teaching English. Despite the threats she continued teaching the children English, as well as Dinka, their tribal language and Arabic. Somehow she knew somehow that the ability to speak English would be important for their futures, and she was right. English is now the national language of South Sudan.
The soldiers did many things to harass the school, including taking the school uniforms at one point, leaving some children naked.  But Sister Sidonia said she was never afraid of their guns and taught the children to be courageous.  When the Antonov bombers would come, she would tell the children not to run but to lie down flat and be strong.
I could have stayed all day listening to her beautiful courageous stories but I could tell she was growing tired.  The long struggle that ended with the secession of South Sudan was fought by many people from many different walks of life, who knew that one of the bravest would be a nun.

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Climate Change and Disaster Preparedness

Climate Change and Disaster Preparedness are big words around this region these days.  Disaster preparedness refers to unpredictable events like drought and floods.
I experienced it during the dry season last winter when the schools in Northern Bahr el Ghazal closed down so families could migrate to swamps in search of water.    But this time I saw the opposite side of the disaster.  Annually, 100,000 households in the state of Northern Bahr el Ghazal are affected by seasonal flooding.   Crops are destroyed, causing a further strain on the increasing population, with so many coming back from the north.
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When I arrived this time, Aweil was in a state of emergency from intense flooding. Violent storms came every other night and the communities were completely vulnerable in their flimsy, exposed houses.   Seventy-eight percent of the population lives in small huts that collapse under the pressure.
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Our team had been sending regular updates about the emergency and when I arrived many people had begun relocating onto the roadside, away from the rising waters.
The resiliency of these communities is amazing.  People are somehow able to remain friendly as they help each other move their families and meager belongings to higher ground.
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Life is already a struggle, without the added stress of disasters.   According to official NBeG Strategic Work Plan 2012-2015.
31% of the population has to walk for more than 30 minutes one-way to collect drinking water.
13% have to walk more than one hour.
58% of the population use firewood or grass as the primary source of lighting
30% have no lighting.
97% of the population uses firewood or charcoal as the primary fuel for cooking.
And a staggering <b>96% of the population </b>does not have access to any toilet facility.
With open defecation commonly practiced, there is a huge risk of disease outbreaks such as typhoid and cholera, from the contaminated floodwater.
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While most of the aid community was responding to the emergency by relocating families and distributing food, our team recognized the risky hygienic situation and immediately began an additional campaign of School Led Total Sanitation in the 11 schools we were already working.   Each of the schools has an enrollment of between 800 and 1200 due to the large number of returnees from the north.   We knew we needed to reinforce some serious sanitation messages, in order for these children to avoid contracting some dangerous diseases from the contaminated floodwater.
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We spent a week at each school going class by class with sanitation messages.  We worked closely with the Inspector of Schools who was thrilled that we were able to assist.  We encouraged the children to use the latrines and stressed the importance of keeping things as clean as possible, explaining that the water is contaminated.    We emphasized the importance of hand washing and boiling their drinking water.   As usual, the children were very receptive to these messages.   Their young minds are open, eager and interested.  School is a wonderful place to begin instilling these important concepts.  And by starting young, hopefully these ideas remain with the children throughout their lives.   Providing clean water is just a band-aid if you are not promoting hygienic practices and safe methods of keeping the water clean for consumption.  It’s easy to take for granted that the water coming from our tap is clean.  But out here there are many ways of contaminating clean well water, after it’s pumped and before it’s consumed.   Our teams are dedicated to ensuring that doesn’t happen.
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One afternoon we ran into a local boy named Ngor Garang Tong, a 5th grader at Salva Kiir Primary School, one of the schools we were working in.  He had a small after-school business of shining shoes and said he uses his money to help his mom feed his six siblings.   He told us he is trying to save more money so he can build his family a safe and secure house.  Ngor said he loves school and attends every day, without missing.   His favorite class is English.   He told us when he grows up he is going to be governor or community leader.

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International Day of the Girl

Today is the first-ever International Day of the Girl.   Even here in Uganda we are hearing that the Empire State Building in New York City is being lit up pink in tribute.  It’s so encouraging that the global community is taking on this important issue!
Today UNICEF South Sudan issued a call to action against child marriage, one of the major challenges facing young girls in this region.
Girls around here are routinely married off as soon as they reach puberty and they have no choice in the matter.
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Sarah Awelping is a 19 year-old 6th grader at Salam Girls’ School in Aweil, South Sudan.  I met her recently when we were at her school checking on a well we repaired.   At the age of 15, like many girls her age, Sarah met and fell in love with a boy from a neighboring village.   His name was Garang and the two hoped to eventually marry.   Like many around here she is behind on her education because of the war, and understanding the importance of education, they both agreed to finish school first.
In the meantime, Sarah’s parents were approached by 60 year-old man who offered a large dowry of 100 cows for the young girl.
Despite the fact that the man already had four wives, and many children, Sarah’s parents accepted his offer.   The family was very poor and 100 cows would mean a period of financial security for them.  They would use these cows as currency.  If the crops failed, they would trade them for food.  They would be used to pay school fees for Sarah’s brothers.  And ultimately they would be used to pay the dowries for Sarah’s bothers’ wives.   Girls in this region, and much of the world, bear the burden of being considered one of the few commodities for their poor families.
Sarah was devastated when she secretly learned of her parent’s deal.   She knew the only way for her to be with Garang would be to run away.  So the two snuck away in the night and were secretly married.  When Sarah’s parents learned of the union, they threatened to have the marriage annulled. Fortunately for Sarah she had other supporters!   Her aunt defended her right to marry for love and eventually some other family members also joined in support.   Even though Sarah’s parents were furious over the lost dowry, they eventually gave up.
According to Sarah, girls often suffer terribly when they are given in marriage for a dowry.  The husbands consider them property, since they paid for them, and therefore exert complete control over them.   According to Sarah, unlike a marriage of love and trust, in these arranged unions the wives must ask approval from their husbands in order to even leave the house, often because the husbands fear they will run away.   The relationships are often physically abusive and the wives have no power to resist.
Sarah is adamant that the dowry system needs to change.  She says that, although it worked a long time ago, these days education is important.  She feels young girls should be allowed to focus on school rather than being forced into early marriage.
Although Sarah and Garang are happily married, she is still enrolled in school.   She makes wonderful grades and hopes to one day become a doctor.  She says she has seen so many people suffer and die from illnesses and wants to help.
Sarah’s story is like many other girls in the world.  Child mothers and child wives are a VERY BIG, REAL PROBLEM out here.   These girls would be shocked to know that the Empire State Building is being lit up pink today in honor of them.
They would never imagine that the world cares about them this much!

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Real Stories from one of our Village Savings and Loan Association (VSLA) Programs

While doing our project follow up in Uganda, I was thrilled to see how well our Village Savings and Loan Associations were coming along. We now have 13 groups, which each consist of 30 members.
The Village Savings and Loan Association Program or VSLA is a very-structured system of saving, borrowing and lending of money generated from village contributions. It was designed to be simple enough to verbally explain that even illiterate members of the community can easily understand how it works. The reason VSLA’s are able to be so self-sustaining is because any money borrowed must to be used for income-generating activities and all financial decisions must be made by the group. Once a year the interest earned is divided among the association, based on the amount each person has contributed.
Whenever possible, we now set up VSLA’s in villages after we have installed a well or sanitation system. We have found that because the villagers have a financial stake in the project they are far more committed to keeping the well working than when we were previously just setting up water committees.

Alworo Village Savings and Loan Association (VSLA) Program meeting

The first VSLA association I visited was at Alworo Primary School in Lira, Uganda. This school has three groups. When we arrived, we received a very warm greeting from the members, which I quickly noticed were 90% women.
On this particular day, along with wanting to document how the groups were doing, we also mobilized them to discuss a small problem of someone vandalizing the toilets.
Along with promoting small-scale economic development within the community, the VSLA also becomes a well-organized advocate for proper maintenance of the water and sanitation facilities. The group unites the school and community, as they collectively manage the facilities and monitor the water user fees (money paid by the members of the community that can afford to pay to keep the well working). This is also an enormous benefit when addressing problems.
On this day, everybody listened to the concerns, offered suggestions and collectively decided the way forward. They even called for the chairman of the PTA, who wasn’t a VSLA member, and convinced him to bring the issue before the PTA in order to include the parents in efforts to address the problem. This is just an added benefit of this wonderful group. But the most exciting thing is hearing about all of their little businesses.
Alex Ogwang

Alex Ogwang (pictured above) has 7 children and used his loan to start buying animal skins (like goats and sheep). He then sells them to local agents who work for companies making leather shoes, belts and bags.
He uses part of his profit to pay his children’s school fees and recently bought a piglet with the remainder. Although, he’s a little concerned that some of the pigs in the village have been dying from sickness, he likes his little piglet and doesn’t want to sell it, even though he is concerned it might die. He says he really wants to wait and see how big it’s going to grow.
Esther Okulo

Esther Okulo bought a mama pig with her loan. She sold three of its piglets and decided to keep three. With her profit from the first three piglets, she started cooking meals at the local trading center, an area within the village where people buy and sell things. She has two children and has decided to put most of her profit toward educating them. They are both currently enrolled in a local boarding school.
Polly Akulo

Polly Akulo has four girls who are all attending school. She buys cassava, a local root similar to potatoes, which she dries, peels and packages for selling. It’s a little bit like village fast food, for people on the go who need something to eat. She is making a decent profit from specializing in her cassava business. After her children’s school fees were paid, she used the rest of her profits to buy a calf. Once it’s full grown, she plans to keep the milk for her family and sell its calves.
Celina Ocen

Celina Ocen is running several successful businesses and doing very well. In 2003, her husband was shot and killed, leaving her a widow with eight children.
As with everybody I interviewed, Celina is using part of the profit to pay her children’s school fees. Two of them are enrolled in secondary school and another is attending a local private school. One of her businesses is selling chickens. Her family eats the eggs and she sells the chicks to purchase schoolbooks for her kids. Her thriving business has even enabled her to hire people to tend to her garden, an activity that often results in children missing school.
We have found that the most common reason for pupils dropping out of school has to do with money. And VSLAs seem to really help address this in a simple way.
Along with the small businesses, these members are also earning interest on their savings, which is shared out equally at the end of each year.
Overall, I’m learning that attitudes about education differ widely from area to area. The people in these VSLA groups all seem very interested in their children attending school. We are now trying to pinpoint key differences between those who are and those who aren’t invested in education. Could it all boil down to money? Would these parents be more interested in their children’s education if it were not such a financial burden? Is peer pressure a factor? We plan to keep monitoring these groups and collecting data to determine what is working and why.
So far I can tell you that VSLA is an exciting concept that does help! These groups are making a financial impact on the lives of these peoples, in a very sustainable way. We hope to eventually have the funding to form VSLAs as a standard part of our program alongside every well or sanitation system we construct. This is a goal we will strive to obtain.

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Changing attitudes about female education

The drilling team in South Sudan was starting to make progress, and once we were sure they had reached a place where they could be left to continue, we headed back to Uganda to check on some of our projects there.
First stop was Alela Modern Primary School, near Lira, where we had perviously constructed one of our sanitation systems.

Joseph Kony and the LRA had terrorized this school and community back in 2006; and when we first visited there in 2009, the villages were still recovering from the trauma of having had children abducted.
But these days, I see a much different picture. According to the school records, enrollment has steadily increased since we began working with the school two years ago, from 823 pupils in 2010 to the current enrollment of 1018. The teachers even proudly showed off the student national performance scores, which had also improved each year.
The administration very vocally credits these increases partially to the availability of nearby water and good sanitation facilities, saying it makes it easier for the pupils to come to school and stay there.
Although the benefits of clean water are obvious, access to decent sanitation has also had an enormous impact. A visit to most any school pit latrine is an eye-opening experience. The children do not like to use them. They smell terrible and are often littered with feces, as the small children usually relieve themselves on the floor, for fear of falling into those big dark pits. Although we are still collecting data to prove this theory, it is my strong belief that school pit latrines make young children sick.
Aside from being clean and free of bad odors, our sanitation system also has the added benefit of providing water and much needed privacy for adolescent girls, which is key to keeping the girls in school once they reach puberty.
Christopher Elem, the head teacher of Alela Modern Primary School, is very serious about keeping the girls in his school.  In fact, the school’s administration was recently prepared to launch a court case against the parents of 16 year-old Charity Atem whey they tried to make her drop out of school.

Charity Atem, Alela Modern Primary School, Uganda.

Elem admits that changing attitudes about female education is a real challenge for the school, as the overall culture is not supportive of its girls. Families keep them at home to perform domestic duties as soon as they are old enough. And many parents marry their daughters off as soon as they reach puberty. Although both of these practices are technically illegal, the laws are rarely enforced.
In Charity’s case, although her test scores were excellent, her parents wanted to get her married, in order to focus their meager financial resources on educating her brother.
The bright 16 year-old seemed extremely frustrated by the whole situation saying that her community thinks it is wasteful to spend money on girls.
Her friend Nancy Amule is repeating 7th grade after missing too many days of school last year and falling behind.
Nancy Amule, Alela Modern Primary School, Uganda

Nancy also gets no support from her community. She says the villagers not only tease her because she’s still attending school, when she’s old enough to be married, but her father’s friends also pressure him to stop wasting money on her education, saying she is of no benefit to the family.
In this culture, girls tend to move in with their husband’s families after marrying. So when faced with the issue of limited resources, parents often focus more on educating and nurturing the boys, which they feel will eventually be an asset to the family. Meanwhile, girls are primed for marriage at an early age, and encouraged to master domestic duties over learning math or English (Note: English is the national language of both Uganda and South Sudan and most jobs require that you speak it. But a multitude of tribal vernacular is spoken in villages across the region.)
Right now Nancy does most of the work around her house, especially the cooking. She spends three hours after school fetching water, grinding millet and preparing dinner. An injury left her mother with a weak leg, so although she spends her days working in the garden and fetching the firewood for cooking, by evening she is exhausted and Nancy takes over.
Both girls feel it is extremely unfair that their brothers get preferential treatment. When I mentioned the concept of gender inequality they both got very animated, saying that society tells girls they are useless and as soon as they have breasts and are only fit for marrying. Meanwhile, the boys get to go to school and often do nothing with the education they get.
Class at Alela Modern begins at 6:30AM and ends at 5PM. This means that both Nancy and Charity leave their homes in the dark to trek across fields and down dirt roads to get to school on time. But neither girl seems to mind. They are happy to be in class, even though the pupils and teachers must use flashlights to illuminate their lessons until the sun comes up.
For Charity things are going well. Because of the school intervention, her parents allowed her to return to class and she recently passed the national exams. She’s headed to high school next term.
But Nancy is not so lucky. Despite all of her efforts, she just learned that her father enrolled her in technical school. Although she had hoped to one day become a nurse, she will soon be leaving her studies behind. She says she will most likely learn to sew or paint furniture at her new school.
Clearly there is a huge need for parents to support learning. Providing water and sanitation to these institutions often helps give that extra bit credibility to motivate the parents to get involved.
So there is a ripple effect. In the beginning, having these facilities encourages more students to enroll in the school. This provides additional financial support to the institution. This extra funding then becomes an incentive for the teachers. And a motivated administration is key to encouraging the parents and keeping children, especially girls, in school. In the end, they come to school, they stay there and perform better.
“Women must be full partners in development, so they can lift themselves and their communities out of poverty.”  United Nation Secretary General -Ban Ki-Moon

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Northern Bahr el Ghazal – the poorest area in South Sudan


Northern Bahr el Ghazal (NBeG) is reported to be the poorest area of South Sudan… and I believe it.
The state has a severe lack of infrastructure. Because of the war, and environmental conditions such as regular flooding and droughts, there has been little progress in terms of development.
We work closely with many partners to implement our program, including Water and Education offices at both state and local levels. Although there is a major dependence on international assistance for the most basic of services, these government agencies are doing their best to alleviate the suffering of their people, who are emerging from decades of trauma.
This week, we stopped by the State Ministry of Education to give them a report on our activities. The Senior Inspector of Schools and the Director of Planning and Budgets warmly greeted us. They wanted very much to discuss the water crisis at the schools. They explained that they were very concerned that schools were scheduled to start back in session in a few weeks and the entire area was still extremely dry. Without available water at the schools, clean or not, they were not sure how the children would be able to endure the average heat of 105°F (which can escalate to 118°F), at their outdoor classes.
The children in most of these schools are studying under trees and in huts, rather than in classrooms, so they are easily distracted. It’s a problem if it’s too dry; it’s a problem if it’s too wet. From our early assessments, I knew that teaching under these extreme conditions is a real challenge.
With conditions like this at the schools, there is little incentive for families to even send their children to school, usually if just some of the children are allowed to attend school it is the boys who are favored. Most schools do not have water or toilets. There is also a cultural tendency to keep children at home, once they reach a certain age, to tend the animals, dig the gardens, fetch water and perform domestic duties.
It is hard to over exaggerate the desperate water situation in this area. And although the need for this crucial resource is very high on everybody’s priority list, the unfortunate reality is, education is not as high, especially in the villages. From our past experiences, we are hopeful this water will serve as an incentive to encourage these families to send their children to school, especially the girls.
Our field team spent the past three months diligently assessing schools, mobilizing the communities and getting MOUs signed to define everyone’s responsibility in relation the construction and management of the wells. The drillers were busy in the field, progressing at about one well a week.
I was eager to get into the field myself and see how things were moving along. I wanted to find out which of our strategies were working and get input from the field crews on where we might want to make adjustments.


When we arrived at the first school, water was flowing! The hand pump was not yet installed, but the drillers were pump testing to determine the hourly yield of the well. Yet, that was no deterrent to the many children who could not stay away from the excitement of fresh water. It was hot and they were very happy. The local women were already filling their containers with water as the head teacher and community members were monitoring everything and assisting with any needs of the drillers. It was a happy day for all and a beautiful sight to behold.
Although dozens of families had left their homes and migrated to the swamps for relief during the December through April dry season, school was scheduled to start soon and they would be returning.
In December, before the villagers left the area, we mobilized each of the communities to explain the project and sign the MOUs. Now, we were just waiting for the families to return so we could form the Water User Committees which consist of men and women from the village; draft By Laws for how the water point would be managed to ensure sustainability; elect a caretaker, and conduct hygiene training.
Engaging the villagers in their ownership, and the decision-making processes surrounding the wells, is essential to enhancing their capacity to help themselves and facilitate change.
We have a big job ahead of us as we try to convince these communities of the importance of education. Thankfully, we are gaining their trust with our first step, providing this much-needed water. There is no denying that safe water and good hygiene practice keep children healthy. And healthy children have healthy minds. This region needs those healthy minds as it strives to pull itself up and move forward.
Sometimes this work seems tough and thankless, the days are long, the weather is oppressively hot and the task seems immense. But just when you are feeling like everything is a struggle, you have a day like this and see just how much of an enormous impact clean water is going to have on the day-to-day lives of this community and school, and it equally inspires us to move forward.

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When you educate a girl you educate the nation

While having lunch in the South Sudan town of Aweil recently, we had the pleasure of meeting the director for a German NGO, GIZ.  He struck up a conversation and when he learned we were helping to provide water in the region, asked if we’d be able to meet with him about something after lunch.
Apparently, their organization, in conjunction with USAID, has a big project of constructing 100 homes for the elderly returnees near one of the settlements.  But, the problem is, there is no water in the area.
Along with the community needing water for drinking and all of their daily needs, they also need water to make their bricks for building, which the communities make and GIZ then buys from them.  They asked if there was any way we could consider working in this area.   I put our field crew in touch with their field guys and we’re now trying to see if we can help.  It’s all about partnerships around here.  It’s the best way of getting anything done.  The task is enormous and you really have to work together.
Many of the people coming back were living in the Northern camps and don’t have jobs or money.  It’s tricky because this is their homeland and they love their people.  But in some ways their lives in the North were easier. There are a lot of challenges in the South.

We met one lady who was running a little tea stand.  It was her first time to ever have a small business.   She had two children who were helping her, a 14-year-old named Deng and an 8-year-old called Mathen Koul.  When we asked her how the kids were adjusting, she said, “not well,” but that she keeps telling them things will get better.   Her biggest concern is getting enough money each day to buy a small amount of food for them to eat.

The children in the villages surrounding Aweil only speak their tribal language, Dinka.   Deng and Koul do not speak Dinka but instead a different version of Arabic than what is spoken in South Sudan.   English is the new national language, but people mostly speak Juba-Arabic (a combination of Arabic and Swahili) and their tribal languages.  It is great that Deng and Koul speak very good English, but I worry about how these children of the returnees are going to adjust to these Southern schools.   The schools in town are much better than the ones in the villages.  In these remote villages there is little motivation for children to attend; studying is conducted under the trees with no chairs or desks and two classes often simultaneously take turns sharing one chalkboard.
But education is definitely the key, and that’s what we’re here to do. There is no way this country will progress if these children are not educated.  We are dedicated to providing the incentives needed to get these kids to school, and keep them there!
This starts with providing water and sanitation.  I know that having water at these schools is going to make a huge difference, not only in terms of healthy bodies and healthy minds.  We’ve seen what it’s done in Uganda and other areas of South Sudan in terms of keeping girls in class.  So far, I’m seeing very few girls in these Aweil schools.   But that just has to change.
As I watch the women struggle to work each day, with babies on their backs, I know there is a need, and desire, for family planning strategies.   I spend a lot of time in the villages and have learned that not all women want 15 children.  They don’t think they have options.  This is another area where education would be invaluable.
We just have to provide some motivation to keep them in school and we’re developing some fantastic initiatives for doing just that.  Building on what we’ve learned from our past projects, we have a five-year plan that we know will make a difference.   Our crews are in the field.  School starts April 1st and we’re ready to go!
We need to put a dollar amount on what it will cost to get girls in school and make it possible for them to stay in school. Whatever the cost, it will be far more cost effective than allowing the situation to continue the way it is.
The former UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan had this to say on the matter- “Study after study has taught us that there is no tool for development more effective than the empowerment of women. No other policy is as likely to raise economic productivity, or to reduce infant and maternal mortality. No other policy is as sure to improve nutrition and promote health—including the prevention of HIV/AIDS. No other policy is as powerful in increasing the chances of education for the next generation. And I would also venture that no policy is more important in preventing conflict, or in achieving reconciliation after a conflict has ended. But whatever the very real benefits of investing in women, the most important fact remains: Women themselves have the right to live in dignity, in freedom from want and from fear.”
There is no way to say it better.


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Stacey's Blog

Back to the field with travel upgrades

Drop in the Bucket started off the New Year on a great note.  We received a wonderful Christmas present this year from UNICEF in South Sudan.  They donated two Land Cruisers to assist our field teams in our work.  This is a tremendous upgrade for us from old beat down vehicles we’ve been getting around in.

Over the holidays, our always-reliable logistical director, George and one of our South Sudan consultants, Majodit, were in Juba dealing with everything related to the new trucks.  They finalized our NGO registrations with the new government, got the trucks registered, insured and ready for action.  I felt bad that they were spending time doing this when they should have been celebrating with their families, but they were insisting.  We are all so grateful to now have safe, reliable transportation to navigate the treacherous, unpaved terrain.

George and Majodit’s dedication to our projects is incredible.    These guys have fought their entire lives for the freedom of their country and they are extremely devoted to continuing to help with the struggle. They love being in a position to really help their people, many of whom are desperate for the most basic of services.  Water, food and education are at the top of that list.
When I returned to the US for the holidays, the humanitarian community was preparing for the major influx of returnees that were coming back from the North into South Sudan. Driving through the streets of Aweil this time, it was clear that they had come…. and were still coming.
The UN estimates that since July around 328,000 people have returned to South Sudan. The final destination for 100,000 of them was Northern Bahr el Ghazal State (Aweil) and its two neighboring states.

The streets of Aweil were flooded with people. There were donkeys pulling carts loaded with USAID bags of sorghum, a local grain staple. The street kids were out in droves searching for a piece of bread or small change.
It is clear that the additional people are definitely taking a toll on the region and there is a food shortage that’s reached crisis level. Even the donkeys and horses around Aweil Town looked weak and hungry, with their bones protruding, as they struggled to haul their carts.
People are really guarded so I don’t take many photos. I don’t want to offend them or have them in any way think we are going to exploit the suffering.
We are careful to let people know that we want to hear from them, work WITH them to address their crisis.
Although there was a real sense of desperation in town, I knew things were even much worse in the villages. There are many areas that we can only access during the dry season (December – May). I learned that in August 2011 , at the same time we were doing our preliminary assessments in Aweil, 350 people had died of starvation in a remote returnee camp in the next state over, Warrap.
It’s so hard for me to accept that people are dying of starvation and from drinking contaminated water, when I see people around the world who have so much… and waste so much. But here there is no waste around here.
Food prices have gone through the roof, increasing by almost 50% since last August. Over the summer you could buy a 50-kilo bag of sorghum for 130 South Sudanese pounds. Now it’s 180 SSP. People cannot afford to feed their families.
Looking around at the dry barren landscape, you see a lot of potential farmland. And underground water is easily accessed, with the right equipment. The largest aquifer in all of Africa sits underneath this particular region. It’s rare to drill and not reach water. This is water that could also be used as irrigation for the vast stretches of farmland. It’s hard to believe that this area is so rich with untapped resources and, at the same time, the people are dying of hunger and from drinking contaminated water. But on a positive note, I’m meeting good, smart people out here every single day who are all collaborating to make a difference.

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Stacey's Blog

Some weeks are easier than others

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Finding something to eat in Northern Bahr El Ghazal is always very challenging. On our initial trip in July, we pretty much ate beans and rice at every meal. This time we decided to go to the market and select our own food. We then convinced the hotel cooks to prepare the meals for us and paid them separately for the work.
The market had a small selection locally grown food. We got pumpkin, eggplant, different kinds of greens, tomatoes and cucumbers. It was awesome coming back from the field each day to a delicious dinner that was something other than beans and rice.
market
Everything was working beautifully until one day the cooks had a dispute over who was cooking and how the money was divided. After that, the food started coming out cold and not well prepared. I was nervous about having people who were not happy preparing our food, so we abandoned that plan decided to go back to eating beans and rice in town.
We knew we weren’t staying at a Four Seasons, but as the days progressed our hotel became increasingly taxing. I tried to make the best of things but some days it was hard. We brought our own sheets and towels but it was still a real challenge. The US health department would have shut them down by American standards. The place was unbearably hot; there was no toilet paper half the time, a dirty, leaky bathroom (ironically), and beds with no mosquito nets, just to name a few things. On top of this, it was expensive. But there was nowhere else to stay. Breakfast was included in the price. It consisted of tea and bread, and they were usually out of either one or the other.
One day we met a veterinarian from Vets without Borders. He had lived in Somalia for 30 years and was doing some fieldwork in the area. We became fast friends when I shared an extra tea bag and some bread with him after the hotel told him they had nothing for his breakfast. I enjoyed talking to him about his work and was disappointed when he informed me the hotel was too awful for him to stay and he had contacted a friend from another aid organization and was going to stay in their compound. I realized I would need to make some friends of my own, and quickly.
There was a small fridge in the room with a freezer that worked overnight, when the generator was running. Every night I would freeze bottles of water so we’d have cold water for a couple of hours in the morning. The ones I left in the freezer during he day would remain cold until we got back from the field in the afternoon, even though the power was off during the day. Honestly, that cold water seemed like the best thing in the world when we came in exhausted and dirty at the end of the day.
I also paid a lady to heat me water every night for showering. Otherwise, the water from the tap was pretty dirty and cold, so it was difficult to feel clean.
The hot water for bathing and cold water for drinking are maybe the two things that kept me sane at that hotel. We’re definitely going to need to set up our own small compound there soon.
Each day before heading off to the field, we would fuel up the truck from a roadside stand that sold jugs filled with gas. The attendant would siphon the fuel into a hose with his mouth and then put it into the truck.
fuel
Midway through the second week I decided I didn’t trust our truck anymore. We had broken down several times and were traveling deeper and deeper into the villages. I felt we needed a more reliable vehicle and asked George to find someone else in town who would rent us something better. I felt bad firing Dut, since he’d already been driving us for over a week, but this was not personal. We just couldn’t risk breaking down in these remote areas.
Thankfully, George found us an alternate vehicle that day. We were traveling with the Director of Education for all of Aweil East County, which included 128 schools. We had just left a school and were driving on a remote dirt road when our new truck completely quit. Despite cajoling a number of people to help us push it, our efforts were useless. We had one bottle of water left and the heat was excruciating. There were no other vehicles traveling on the road and no cell reception. We were completely stranded.
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Although we had airtime in our satellite phone, we couldn’t think of anybody to call. The driver tried his friends but they didn’t have another vehicle available. People around these parts just don’t have personal cars and trucks. If you’re lucky, you have a motorcycle. The education director didn’t even know anybody we could call. After weighing all of our options, we realized our only choice was to call our original driver, Dut. By this point it was around 3PM and he was not happy about the idea of driving several hours to pick us up. But he reluctantly agreed. Then we sat at the side of the road waiting, and waiting, and waiting. We were there for five hours total, with one bottle of water, which seemed ironic.
The five of us moved from truck, to shade tree, back to truck. I fantasized about all of the cold things I would drink when I got back to civilization. But everybody remained calm and just tried to make the best of things. I got the feeling that the situation was not new to any of the others. The Education Director even commented that I was really getting see how people struggle.
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We did, however, meet some very interesting people while we were sitting there. We shot interviews about the water crisis with people walking by and did our best to pass the time. Every now and then somebody would get the urge to try to push start the truck again, and we’d all give it a go. But in the end, it was Dut to the rescue, just as it was about to get dark.
We finally got back to Aweil Town, at about 10:00, starving and exhausted. We searched for somewhere to get dinner but everything was closed or else all their food was gone. I had a package of pasta in my bag, so we found someone who agreed to boil it for us. For dinner that night we had plain pasta poured onto a large, shared platter that we ate with our fingers. But it was delicious.
For me some weeks are easier than others, and this one had its fair share of challenges. That said, it’s tough to complain, because for the people who live here this week was not really too different from any other week.
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